The altitude of the Sun on the time of Imsâk (The altitude angle below horizon)

In the prayer and fasting times that are prepared by Turkiye Calendar and published also on the websites, the Tamkin Time and the altitude angle of the Sun from the Shar'i horizon relating to prayer times have not been changed, and the prayer and fasting times have been set correctly. Imsak time starts at the end of Shar'i night in all four madhhabs. That is, it starts when the whiteness called "Fajr-i sâdiq" appears on one point of the Ufk-i zâhirî, (horizontal line) on the east. Fasting starts at this time, too. That is, it starts when the upper limb of the sun approaches 19 degrees to the apparent line (Ufk-i zâhirî). 

Ahmet Ziya Bey, an Islamic astronomy expert, says in his book "Rub'-i dâira": "Europeans calculate the beginning of Fajr-i sâdiq the time when whiteness completely disseminates on the horizontal line. For this reason they take the altitude of the sun as -18 degrees. But we calculate the first time when the whiteness appears on the horizontal line. For this reason, we find the altitude of the sun -19 degrees. Because Islamic scholars communicated that the beginning of Imsâk is not when whiteness is spread out around the horizontal line but when it first appears on the horizontal line." 

That is, for centuries, Islamic scholars have agreed that in the Fajr (imsâk) time altitude of the Sun is -19 degrees below the horizon and that all other values are not correct. This is a fact stated in a fatwâ. (Fatwâ is a conclusive explanation wherein an authorized Islamic scholar answers Muslims' questions). Non-mujtahids do not have the right to change the fatwâ. Acts of worship that are not performed in accordance with the fatwâ are not sahîh (valid). Muslims have to follow Islamic scholars not Christians and la-Madhhabi people in religious affairs.

As a matter of fact, in 1958, the Presidency of Religious Affairs had given an answer to a columnist by saying, "… When it comes to Imsâk time; you say that 'The British, Americans and French people have adopted this time as the time when the sun is 18 degrees below the horizontal line' in your article. I wonder what worship these three Christian nations have at Imsâk time that they would accept this degree as the basis. Even if they have done so, why to follow foreigners in this matter while the Islamic rules for the mentioned time were set by Islamic astronomy experts? The Imsâk time is the moment when the rising of Fajr starts (that is, the moment when the whiteness appears as a point on the east horizon). The former astronomers (the all early Islamic astronomy experts) accepted this moment as 19 degrees of the sun below the horizon. This means that the time accepted by Islamic astronomers is not -18 degrees but -19 degrees. The prayer times have to be calculated according to this and the calculations in our calendar are based on this." They declare and the Imsâk time is calculated by logarithmic and trigonometric with these formulas and calculating the Period of Tamkin, too, they sent to the abovementioned author of the newspaper.

Imsâk times published in Turkiye calendars and in our websites are all calculated as the same way as mentioned here by using 19 degrees below the horizon and by taking a lead time as long as Tamkin Time.

Imsak times calculated by taking the angle of altitude of the sun below horizon as -18 degrees are wrong (not valid).

Calculating with both (mistakes as) by taking the altitude of the sun below horizon as -18 degrees and by eliminating the Period of Tamkin completely makes around 15-20 minute difference in times of Imsâk (in countries staying between the latitudes of 36 – 42 degrees like Turkey) and fasting time starts approximately 15-20 minutes later than correct Imsâk time. Fasts that were shortened by this reason should be made qada (repeated).